So-called flavonoids, such as naringin, are known to have cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects. They reduce the degree of inflammation caused by obesity, especially in adipose tissues, and reduce blood fat and cholesterol levels.
Naringin is a natural ingredient,
is typically extracted from the inside of the grapefruit skin – its bitter taste is well known to us all. It is one of the bioflavonoids, or flavonoids more broadly, discovered by Albert Szent-Györgyi. It is a powerful antioxidant with many known disease-preventing and health-promoting effects.
Naringin – why is it good?
Reduces inflammation caused by obesity. Weight gain, fat accumulation and, in turn, the development of adipose tissue can trigger macrophage and mastocyte infiltration of adipose tissue, and activated cells (immune and adipocytes) release inflammatory mediators into their environment (e.g. TNF-α) and, through them, into the bloodstream (Yu et al., 2006). By perpetuating this process, obesity, and with it the further build-up of adipose tissue, creates a permanent inflammatory process, primarily in adipose tissue. In the blood of obese people, the most abundant cytokine (intercellular messenger) is TNF-α, which is responsible for the development of insulin resistance (Stephens et al., 1993) and damage to pancreatic β-cells (Lin et al., 2013). Flavonoids such as naringin act by inhibiting the formation of these inflammatory mediators (Kawaguchi et al., 2004, Hirai et al., 2008), reducing the extent of inflammation.
Reduces blood levels of fat and cholesterol. Even in high fat diets (Shin et al., 1999, Jung et al, 2003, Pu et al., 2012).
It has heart and liver protective effects. The cardioprotective effects of flavonoids are well known (Qin et al., 2008, Mojzisová et al., 2009). Administration of naringin prevented isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant enzymes and reduced inflammatory cells and fibrosis (Rajadurai and Prince, 2006). In addition to the cardioprotective effect, it also has direct hepatoprotective effects, with Naringin administration significantly reducing the amount of enzymes released by disintegrating liver cells in cases of artificial cadmium and chromium poisoning (Renugadevi and Prabu, 2010, Pari and Amudha 2011).
Choline is an essential building block of cells. It has many functions, including being involved in the transport of fats and is essential for normal fat metabolism. Choline was added to the list of essential nutrients in 1998 as it is essential for the normal functioning of the body and for maintaining health. It is found in both plants and animals. As an essential molecule, it has many functions in living organisms. In its deficiency, liver and muscle damage can be observed, as well as neurological disorders in newborns.
Choline – why is it good?
It is involved in fat metabolism as a methyl donor. Choline is essential for biochemical processes in the liver, acting indirectly as a methyl group donor in cells. These chemical processes are necessary for the biosynthesis of fats and the regulation of biochemical processes in the cell. Necessary for the development of the nervous system in the foetus. It is well known that folic acid is a vitamin that protects the foetus, but few people know that folic acid and choline interact strongly with each other. If either is missing, the other cannot function properly. Choline requirements have been shown to increase significantly during pregnancy. The amount of choline in amniotic fluid can be up to ten times the amount in the mother’s blood. Because the foetus is growing very fast, it needs to build a lot of cells, which uses a lot of choline.In addition, brain growth starts in the third trimester and continues for the first 5 years of life. The brain is particularly rich in places that require more choline due to rapid development. Women with low choline intake had a four-fold increased risk of developing an open spine, and a correlation was hypothesized for differences in memory and learning abilities between people.
Detoxification. As a methyl donor, the methyl group, when attached to foreign toxins, allows their elimination from the body, thus contributing to the maintenance of normal liver function. A component of the cell wall. It is essential for building the phospholipids found in the cell walls of all living organisms and is also involved in communication between cells. It is heart-protective. High levels of homocysteine in the blood tend to trigger processes that damage the blood vessel walls, cause inflammation and are therefore a possible risk factor for coronary heart disease (angina, heart attack). The molecule formed from choline, betaine, is required for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine (both sulphur-containing essential amino acids) from homocysteine, thereby reducing homocysteine levels. A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is essential for the normal transmission of impulses to the brain and muscles – and therefore for their function.
It is now well known that whey proteins have antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant effects, protect against certain circulatory diseases and cancers, and boost the body’s immune defences. However, fewer people know that it also plays an important role in effective weight loss. Whey protein is called fast protein because it is absorbed quickly and provides high amino acid levels immediately. All this has a number of positive physiological effects.
Whey protein – why is it good?
It gives you a sense of well-being and controls your blood pressure and sugar levels. A very high proportion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, also found in popular supplements for athletes) and a combination of biologically active peptides (i.e. molecules of 2-50 amino acids, such as whey protein) play a role in regulating blood pressure, satiety, short-term food intake, glycaemic control and blood glucose.
It lowers blood pressure and slows gastric emptying, reduces appetite. Whey proteins are biologically active peptides with multiple physiological functions. They inhibit an enzyme called ACE, which both lowers blood pressure and has an effect on fat synthesis in fat cells. Whey proteins also stimulate the synthesis of hormones in the intestinal tract (Ghrelin, CCK, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, PP) which slow gastric emptying and promote the development of fullness (Hartmann and Meisel, 2007, Meisel, 2004, Pupovac and Anderson, 2002). The overall effect is to alter blood glucose, amino acid (BCAA), urea and insulin levels (Chungchunlam, 2015).
Helps to build muscle. It triggers the body’s protein synthesis, thus promoting the building of new muscle. So, with extra protein, we keep the muscle we have – muscle mass is also reduced during weight loss – and even help new muscle tissue to form. This is important because more muscle burns more calories.
Whey protein – why is it special?
It contains a specially produced, purified whey protein fraction that has not been damaged in any way (e.g. heat, acid, drying, etc.) and therefore retains its original composition, shape, conformation and biological effect.
Using whey to fight obesity!
Several scientific articles have confirmed that “consumption of milk and dairy products reduces the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome (a cluster of symptoms of several interrelated metabolic disorders) and type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)” (Pereira et al., 2002, Drapeau et al., 2004, Azadbakht et al., 2005). Despite this, milk consumption is falling worldwide, and with it the risk of obesity grows.Research supports that the beneficial effects of milk are mainly due to milk proteins (Luhovyy et al., 2007, Moore, 2004, Akhavan et al., 2009).
Whey is a by-product of the dairy industry, and for a long time it was seen as a by-product – added to animal feed, made into whey cheese, or simply thrown away. When you think that around 145 000 000 tonnes of whey are produced in the world every year, throwing it away is not only a serious waste, but also a serious environmental pollution. In animal use, whey has been found to be one of the most easily digestible and balanced amino acid contents of protein feeds it promotes the digestion of plant parts that are difficult to digest and biological usability, the growth of calves, and positive changes in bacterial flora. With the recognition of its beneficial properties, research into its human applications began. Most whey, 90-93%, is water and contains lactose, whey proteins and salts, mainly calcium.
Milk sugar (lactose)
Lactose has prebiotic properties, promoting the growth of the “good” bacteria that make up the intestinal flora, thus reducing the activity of pathogenic bacteria. It also supports the normal functioning of our immune system and plays an important role in weight management. Lactose is broken down into monosaccharides by the enzyme lactase in our intestinal tract, which are then absorbed in the small intestine. Many lactose intolerant people give up dairy products altogether, but studies have shown that they can drink a cup of milk a day without any consequences, especially when consumed with meals (Byers and Da, 2005).
Lactose – why is it good?
Good for your weight and immune system. Ingesting lactose causes the micro-organisms that can use lactose to proliferate in our intestinal flora. Fortunately, these are the microbes that are mainly valuable for us (e.g. bifidobacteria), suppressing less useful, sometimes harmful species (Davis et al., 2011). The shift in intestinal microflora towards ‘good’ bacteria contributes significantly to better immune function and to weight control by influencing fat metabolism (Joyce et al., 2014, Fu et al. 2015).
„Less sugar” It has a lower glycaemic response than glucose or cane sugar (Bowen et al., 2006).
An important prebiotic. It is utilised by the microflora in the large intestine and produces compounds that are beneficial to the human body. Even for lactose-intolerant people, the maximum dose that can be ingested without any adverse side effects is about 10-15 g lactose/day (Corgneau et al., 2016; Macfarlane et al., 2008; Venema, 2012). Below this amount, bacteria can break down lactose properly and produce substances that can be used by the body.
Protects bones. It promotes the passive absorption of calcium, which is a natural part of whey, for example, and thus contributes to the development of healthy bones (Guéguen and Pointillart, 2000). This is particularly important when we want to lose weight and eat less food, and not always in the most varied way.